New UCI president David Lappartient to clamp down on motor doping

The newly-elected UCI president, David Lappartient, has made technological fraud in the professional peloton his biggest target

Newly-elected UCI president David Lappartient has promised to improve the governing body’s credibility by tackling hidden motors within the professional peloton.

“I will be focused on guaranteeing the credibility of the results, especially on technological fraud,” Lappartient told reporters.

The initial wave of testing on bikes in the pro peloton under outgoing president Brian Cookson drew criticism from riders and mangers alike.

>>> David Lappartient elected as new UCI president as Brian Cookson loses out

“We were not professional enough on this subject and I will bring some new ideas to check the bikes and to be stronger on this subject. I don’t want the UCI to be seen as weak in the fight against technological fraud,” the president elect said, in a report by The Star.

The Frenchman defeated Cookson by 37 votes to eight to become cycling’s new top name. In the same vein as Cookson’s successful campaign in 2013, played on the perceived inadequacies of his predecessor.

It was evidently a viewpoint shared by those across the sport, including Tour de France organiser Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO).

Watch: How the UCI tests for hidden motors

The often strained relationship between the sport’s biggest race organiser and the governing body look to be on the mend with Lappartient hoping to use ASO’s more effective technique for detecting hidden motors across the sport.

“He is a man of action and I have no doubt he will be true to his word,” said Christian Prudhomme, director of the Tour de France at ASO, before acknowledging that there was “still a lot of work to do” to improve cycling’s image.

“Let’s work hand in hand to help the sport grow and make people dream but in order to do that, cycling must be credible,” he said.

The declaration comes ahead of the UCI World Championships road races being held over September 22-24 in Bergen, Norway.

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Classy commuting: Boardman’s new urban and steel framed ranges revealed

Boardman has released a range of new bikes, from a trio of urban models to two steel all season road bikes. 

Boardman bikes set out to tackle two challenges with its new urban range – uncomfortable, congested UK streets and poor looking commuter bikes.

Designed to retain a road essence, the new urban range takes cues from the existing road market, with dropped seat stays adding compliance to the ride.

In total there are three new models, with all sharing the same frame, but the higher two are specced with a carbon fork rather than the alloy one found on the base model. All three frames use hydraulic disc brakes.

URB 8.8 £699

The lowest model of the new urban range, the 8.8 has a hydroformed alloy frame paired with an alloy fork.

The drive chain is a mixture of SRAM’s NX and Apex groupsets, with the point being reduced maintenance and hassle of a one by system.  The 11 gear spread out the back should give plenty of range if your commute has any big inclines.

URB 8.9 £849

Sleek, classy and with a carbon fork

The URB 8.9 is the first model in the range to have an aluminium frame paired with a carbon fork.

Also different is the Shimano Alfine 8 speed hub gears. Again, the focus is on reduced maintenance and longevity of components.

URB 9.4 £1,999

At the top is the mind boggling URB 9.4 model, which, for a sniff under £2000 comes equipped with a Shimano Alfine Di2 11 speed belt driven drive chain. The point being that the electronic gears are hassle free and the lack of chain is clean.

Di2 on a commuter bike? Shimano’s Alfine hub gears

The hydraulic brakes are also Shimano’s Metrea models, providing a bit more assurance than on the lower models.

Watch: buyer’s guide to hybrid bikes

Boardman ASR all season road

For 2018, Boardman also introduces two new steel bikes, which its calling its “all season road” range.

Apparently, the new range is a product of “soggy miles” and has been designed to offer the perfect bikes for riding in all weathers.

To do this, Boardman says it has tailored the geometry of the ASR range to suit long miles. This means longer head tubes, a longer top tube and a slacker head angle versus its normal SLR endurance frames.

The pairing of a shorter stem with a longer top tube is designed to still offer the correct fit, but increased stability and control in potentially slippery conditions.

Boardman ASR 8.8 £849

A full 4130 Chromoly steel frame is paired to a carbon fork. The drive chain is Shimano Sora, with a compact chainset and a 11-32 cassette for maximum versatility – think long slow rides or commuting with luggage.

Other nice features include full length mudguards fitted front and back as standard, reflective decals on the frame to boost visibility at night and a tubeless ready wheelset.

Boardman ASR 8.9 £1,299

The top tier models gets a frame that should be a step up in terms of comfort thanks to the Reynolds 725 steel.

The 8.9 comes with Shimano 105 with hydraulic disc brakes, plus the same reflective frame decals, tubeless ready wheels and mudguards as standard.

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How important is body fat percentage for athletes


Wondering how important body fat percentage is and what the best way to reduce it is? Sports scientist of Precision Hydration Andy Blow explains all

 Body fat percentages vary from person to person and athlete to athlete. A swimmer may have a different body fat percentage to a runner and this is due to the different demands of the sports. Water supports the weight of the swimmer, but extra body mass is inactive weight for the runner to carry.  

While it’s a fact that lower body fat means faster run times, you need to be sensible – and there’s generally considered to be a minimum level of body fat required for healthy living. Going below the recommended lower levels (5% for men and 12% for women) will dramatically increase the risks of colds and injuries. Staying below these levels for a long period will increase the risk of other issues, such as inadequate muscle repair after heavy training, bone breaks and, for women, cessation of menstruation. So it’s actually okay to have that piece of cake every now and then!  

If you feel you need to lose weight, it’s best to approach it from two directions; a well-balanced diet with lots of fresh whole foods, fruit, vegetables, combined with a training routine that hits all exercise intensities. Short high-intensity sessions will help build quality muscle tissue, while longer steady sessions will make sure the muscle tissue knows how to use fat as fuel. 

Any change in bodyweight best occurs slowly, as this means it’s come through a gradual change in lifestyle, which is more likely to be sustainable long-term. Permanent habit changes are better the short-term fads. 

How to lose excess weight for triathlons

Race weight: what’s best?

Racing weight: 4 tips for combining lean with power

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Greg Van Avermaet ‘not afraid’ of key Worlds rivals Peter Sagan and Michael Matthews

The Olympic road race champion says the Bergen course is ideal to his riding style

Belgian Greg Van Avermaet says that the World Championships course in Bergen, Norway is ideal and that for Sunday’s road race, he is “not afraid” of top rivals Michael Matthews (Australia) and Peter Sagan (Slovakia).

>>> Six things to look out for at the World Championships road races

Sagan won the last two editions in 2015 and 2016 and is again a favourite with riders like Matthews and Michal Kwiatkowski (Poland). Van Avermaet says that if the race ends in a small sprint, he can manage them.

“I’ve already knocked out those men in sprints, so I have to have confidence,” Van Avermaet said.

“I’m not afraid of them and after a long and hard course, I’m fast.”

Van Avermaet, or ‘Golden Greg’ as he is known in Belgium, carried the weight well after winning the 2016 Olympic road race. This spring, he won E3 Harelbeke, Ghent-Wevelgem and Paris-Roubaix with his BMC Racing team.

He timed his fitness well, placing second in the recent GP Québec behind Peter Sagan.

Last year, he appeared on track too. The 32-year-old placed second in the GP Québec – again behind Sagan – and won the GP Montréal. However, in the worlds in Doha, Qatar, he appeared to be off form and Belgian team-mate Tom Boonen sprinted to third place.

“The Worlds is almost a month earlier than last year. I feel much fresher now because I adjusted my programme,” Van Avermaet added.

“I don’t have a recent victory in my legs, but that is also the nature of the races I rode. There were not many opportunities in the Tour, and then I really worked towards my last goals this year: the Canadian races and the Worlds. My condition is good.”

The forecast shows sun and 18°C for the former Viking port city this Sunday. The Belgian team, which includes Philippe Gilbert, previewed the circuit on Wednesday in the rain.

“It’s a nice circuit, the weather can make a difference, but wet or dry, the many kilometres will make it tough,” said Van Avermaet.

“It is a course that offers possibilities: it’s technical, with little cobbles, there is a bit of everything in it and the final as well. There is a small slope about 500 metres from the finish where you can position yourself, so I’m happy about it.”

To the list of favourites, Van Avermaet added Italian Matteo Trentin and new time trial champion, Dutchman Tom Dumoulin.

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Whats the difference between average power and normalised power on the bike

Training > Bike

Rob Banino explains how average and normalised power differ and why it’s normalised power you want to monitor

Average power is exactly what it sounds like: the average wattage produced over the course of a ride. The trouble is, average power isn’t necessarily a real indication of the work-rate you’re able to maintain. Yes, average power is affected by changes in terrain and wind resistance, but it doesn’t take into account the effects they have on your ability to produce watts. 

That is, producing an average power of 250W for an hour’s ride on a flat road is a different proposition to producing a 250W average for 60mins in the hills. The figure may be the same, but the effort required is vastly different.

The harder you have to work to keep your wattage up, the greater the toll it’s going to take – and the quicker you’ll run out of steam. And since average power doesn’t take those physiological effects into consideration, it’s not the best reference to use when planning a pacing strategy.

And that’s where normalised power comes in. It’s like average power but a little more complicated. It calculates your average wattage, but incorporates adjustments for how your body responds to the different intensities of work. In other words, normalised power accounts for the cost of your exertions. As such, it gives you a figure that more accurately reflects the wattage you can realistically maintain for a particular ride, which makes it very important for pacing. 

Should you trust your bike power meter?

What is bike threshold training?

A triathlete’s guide to bike cadence

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Chrissie Wellington placed in Ironmans Hall of Fame

News > Ironman

The four-time Ironman World Champion has been honoured for her contributions to, and achievements in, the sport

Four-time Ironman World Champion and 220 favourite Chrissie Wellington, will be inducted into the Ironman Hall of Fame on October 11, during race week at the 2017 Ironman World Championship triathlon, in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii.

220 named Wellington 4th greatest female triathlete of all time and  

 “Chrissie’s accomplishments in the sport are impressive and it is fitting that she should be inducted in her first year of eligibility,” said Andrew Messick, Chief Executive Officer of Ironman. “Chrissie exemplifies the role of an Ironman World Champion and has defined what it means to be a professional triathlete in the modern era. Her achievements have furthered the sport and inspired many to become Ironman triathletes themselves. We are honoured to induct her into the IRONMAN Hall of Fame, joining the other elites of the sport.”

 Wellington won every full-distance Ironman triathlon and earned 10 Ironman wins and seven Ironman 70.3 wins during her career, and also still holds the women’s world record for fastest Ironman triathlon finish time of 8:33:56, recorded in 2011 at Ironman South Africa

Within a year of turning professional, Wellington captured her first Ironman World Championship in her debut at the event in 2007, becoming the first British athlete, male or female, to win the race. She would go on to win three additional Ironman World Championship titles in 2008, 2009 and 2011. She is one of only three women to win Ironman World Championships three consecutive times and set the Ironman World Championship course record of 8:54:02 (2009), which stood for five years.

“Once you decide to leave the sport as a professional athlete you think your days of being awarded accolades are over—I am truly humbled and excited to see my name featured among our sport’s greats, whom I have so much admiration and respect for,” said Wellington.

“I devoted five years to being the best athlete I could be. No short cuts, no stone left unturned,” Wellington continued. “I would rather have five years of excellence than 10 years of mediocrity. My life has changed for the better from being able to achieve and experience what I did.”

Wellington joins an illustrious list that includes Dave Scott, Paula Newby-Fraser and Mark Allen.

Chrissie’s latest book, To The Finish Line: A World Champion Triathlete’s Guide to Your Perfect Race, is out now.

Written in conjunction with 220, the book offers advice on everything, from planning your race season and fitting triathlon training into everyday life, to race nutrition strategies and coping with pre-race nerves, to exercising during pregnancy and how to budget for a triathlon.

Drawing on Chrissie’s own training and race experiences – both good and bad – and packed full of extras, such as recipes, a typical weekly training programme and pearls of wisdom from some of Chrissie’s own advisors, including her former coach and fellow Ironman legend, 220 Triathlon columnist Dave Scott


IRONMAN Hall of Fame:




 Dave Scott


 Julie Moss


 Scott Tinley


 Paula Newby-Fraser


 Mark Allen


 John and Judy Collins


 Valerie Silk


 Tom Warren


 Dr. Bob Laird


 Bob Babbitt


 John MacLean/Gordon Haller / Lyn Lemaire


 Greg Welch


 Jim Maclaren


 Team Hoyt – Rick and Dick Hoyt


 Mike Reilly


 Graham Fraser


 Peter Henning


 Georg Hochegger / Helge Lorenz / Stefan Petschnig  


 Lori Bowden / Heather Fuhr


 Lew Friedland / Peter Reid


 Chrissie Wellington

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Easop Lee of South Korea and North Baltimore Verbally Commits to Duke

Photo Courtesy: Peter H. Bick

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NEW COMMIT: Easop Lee, a native of South Korea who currently competes for the North Baltimore Aquatic Club, has verbally committed to join the Duke Blue Devils in the fall of 2018.


Lee’s best event in recent years has been the 200 free, in which she finished 20th at the FINA World Championships in July. Her best time in that event of 1:58.64 came from the Arena Pro Swim Series meet in Atlanta this past May.

Lee was the 2014 Summer Junior National Champion in the 200 fly with a time of 2:10.40, but that mark remains her lifetime best as her freestyles have been the most impressive as of late.

In yards, her lifetime best times are 4:40.90 in the 500 free, 1:58.75 in the 200 IM, 1:44.63 in the 200 free, 1:55.70 in the 200 back and 1:56.55 in the 200 fly. Those times in the freestyle events as well as the 200 fly would have been good enough to place Lee in A-finals at this year’s ACC championships, while her 200 IM and 200 back times come in at B-final level.

Lee’s 200 free time would also have been good enough to make the consolation final in 2017.

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Your Expert Guide To Vitamin B Complex

Vitamin B complex is a group of water-soluble vitamins that include thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12, folate, biotin, and pantothenic acid.[1,2] B vitamins have wide-reaching biological functions, but their most important job is helping to convert nutrients into energy.

The individual vitamins that make up the B complex have specific functions, so it’s important to understand the role of each, along with what happens if you don’t have enough.

Thiamin/Vitamin B-1

What is thiamin?

Thiamin is a water-soluble B vitamin.

What does thiamin do?

Thiamin plays a major role in energy production, particularly the way your body uses glycogen and breaks down branched-chain amino acids.

What happens when you don’t have enough thiamin?

If you’re cutting for weight loss, you may be low in thiamin and could benefit from consuming more.[1-3] By reaching appropriate levels of thiamine, you can benefit from improved overall energy metabolism and endurance.[1,2]

Are there side effects of thiamin?

Thiamin toxicity is unlikely because thiamine is water soluble. Any excess vitamin is excreted in urine.

What are the possible interactions of thiamin?

There are no know interactions for thiamin.

Is thiamine found in whole foods?

A variety of foods contain thiamine, such as wheat germ, legumes, pork, and nuts.


What are the available forms of thiamin?

Thiamin is available in gels, tablets, lozenges, capsules, and multivitamins.

How much thiamin do you need?

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for thiamin is 1.1 milligrams for females and 1.2 milligrams for males, whether it is met through supplementation or your diet.[4] If you’re getting your RDA, don’t worry about timing or size of a dose.

Riboflavin/Vitamin B-2

What is riboflavin ?

Riboflavin is a B vitamin absorbed primarily in the small intestine. It’s involved in aerobic energy production.

What does riboflavin do?

Riboflavin helps your body convert nutrients into energy. It also helps with cellular function.[1]

What happens when you don’t have enough riboflavin ?

Riboflavin deficiency can result in poor performance, although such deficiencies are unusual in athletes. No effects on performance have been found as a result of riboflavin supplementation.[5]

Are there side effects of riboflavin?

There are no know side effects of riboflavin supplementation.

What are the possible interactions of riboflavin?

There are no known interactions between riboflavin and other compounds.

Is riboflavin found in whole foods?

Riboflavin can be found in foods such as cottage cheese, milk, yogurt, and eggs.


What are the available forms of riboflavin ?

Riboflavin can be found in gels, tablets, capsules, and multivitamins.

How much riboflavin do you need?

The RDA for riboflavin is 1.1 milligrams for females and 1.3 milligrams for males.[4]

Niacin/Vitamin B-3

What is niacin?

Niacin generally refers to two substances: nicotinic acid and nicotinamide.

What does niacin do?

Niacin plays an important role in energy metabolism, as well as in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol.[1,2] It is the pre-workout ingredient that gives your skin that flushed or tingling feeling.

What happens when you don’t have enough niacin?

Niacin deficiency can result in a potentially fatal disease called Pellagra, although this is rare and typically occurs in less-developed countries. Niacin supplementation has not been shown to improve athletic performance.[2]

Are there side effects of niacin?

Common side effects of a high dose of niacin include itchy skin rashes, blurred vision, liver complications, and a flushed feeling in the face, arms, and chest.

What are the possible interactions of niacin?

Niacin may interact with certain medications and may even cause bleeding if taken with aspirin.[6] People taking medications should consult their physician before supplementing with niacin.

Is niacin found in whole foods?

Niacin can be found in foods such as beef, poultry, fish, and some whole-grain products.


What are the available forms of niacin?

Niacin is available in gel or capsule form.

How much niacin to you need?

The RDA for niacin is 14 milligrams for females and 16 milligrams for males.[4] The upper limit of consumption is set at 35 milligrams per day.

Vitamin B-6

What is it vitamin B-6?

Vitamin B-6 is a water-soluble vitamin found naturally in many foods and added to many others. It is a term for all biologically active forms including Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal, pyridoxal phosphate, pyridoxal-5′-phosphate.

What does vitamin B-6 do?

Vitamin B-6 has a variety of functions in the body. It helps synthesize amino acids and break down glycogen for energy. It also plays a role in the production of red and white blood cells. Respectively, these support energy production and immune function.[1]

What happens when you don’t have enough vitamin B-6?

Vitamin B-6 deficiency, while rare in athletes, is usually a result of poor food choices. Symptoms can include nausea, impaired immune function, weakness, and anemia. Vitamin B-6 supplementation is unlikely to yield any performance benefits in people who receive sufficient amounts from their diet, although older athletes, vegans, and vegetarians should be sure to get adequate amounts. Vitamin B-6 can also lower homocysteine levels, which can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.[7]

Are there side effects of vitamin B-6?

Toxicity can occur in doses over 1,000 milligrams per day and can result in peripheral nerve damage.[1,2]

What are the possible interactions of vitamin B-6?

Vitamin B-6 may interfere with certain antibiotics. People taking medications should consult their doctor before supplementing with B-6.

Is vitamin B-6 found in whole foods?

Vitamin B-6 is found in high-protein foods such as beef, fish, eggs, and poultry.


What are the available forms of vitamin B-6?

B-6 can be found in gels, tablets, capsules, or multivitamins.

How much vitamin B-6 do you need?

The RDA for vitamin B-6 is 1.3 milligrams.[4] The upper limit for vitamin B-6 is 100 milligrams per day.

Vitamin B-12/ Cobalamin

What is vitamin B-12 ?

Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin with a variety of health functions.

What does vitamin B-12 do?

Vitamin B-12 helps protect the central nervous system by maintaining the integrity of the myelin sheath, the protective layer around nerve fibers. Vitamin B-12 also plays a role in converting nutrients into energy and in red blood cell production.

What happens when you don’t have enough vitamin B-12 ?

Vitamin B-12 deficiency can be a result of not consuming enough of it or in the body’s inability to absorb the B-12 that is available. Since vitamin B-12 is found only in animal products, vegans and vegetarians are at a higher risk of developing a vitamin B-12 deficiency. It’s unlikely that vitamin B-12 yields any performance benefits in athletes who are getting enough of it from their diet. Like vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 can lower homocysteine, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.[1,2]

Are there side effects of vitamin B-12?

There is no known toxicity of high intakes of vitamin B-12. An upper limit of intake has not been set.

What are the possible interactions of vitamin B-12?

Absorption of vitamin B-12 may be impaired by medications designed to reduce stomach acid.[6]

Is vitamin B-12 found in whole foods?

You can get large amounts of vitamin B-12 from animal products such as dairy, eggs, and meats.


What are the available forms of vitamin B-12?

Vitamin B-12/Cobalamin can be found in gels, tablets, capsules, and multivitamins.

How much vitamin B-12 do you need?

The RDA for vitamin B-12 is 2.4 micrograms for men and women between the ages of 19-50.[4] Appropriate levels can be attained through whole foods, supplementation, or both.

Folate/Folic Acid

What is folate?

Folate is a water-soluble vitamin with a variety of health functions.

What does folate do?

Folate plays a massive role in DNA synthesis and cell division, two important functions in reproductive health.[1] It also aids in tissue repair and the maturation of red blood cells.

What happens when you don’t have enough folate?

Consuming adequate folate is critical during pregnancy to avoid complications in the development of the embryo. Folate may also lower the risk of heart disease by lowering levels of homocysteine in the blood.

Are there side effects of folate?

Folate toxicity is rare, although an upper limit has been set at 1,000 micrograms. The main reason for this limit is that high levels of folate can hide B-12 deficiency.

What are the possible interactions of folate?

There are no known interactions.

Is folate found in whole foods?

Food sources of folate include plant-based foods such as legumes, dark-green leafy vegetables, strawberries, and fortified grains.

Leafy greens

What are the available forms of folate?

Folate can be found in gels, tablets, capsules, and multivitamins.

How much folate do you need?

The RDA for folate is 400 micrograms per day.

Biotin/Vitamin B-7

What is biotin?

Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that helps in energy metabolism.

What does biotin do?

Biotin helps convert nutrients into energy and synthesize DNA for healthy cell development.

What happens when you don’t have enough biotin?

Your body needs very little biotin, so deficiencies are rare. Very little research has been conducted on biotin for health or performance.

Are there side effects of biotin?

There are no known side effects of a high consumption of biotin, with no upper limit of intake set.

What are the possible interactions of biotin?

There are no known interactions of biotin supplementation.

Is biotin found in whole foods?

Food such as cheese, nuts, green leafy vegetables, and legumes are good sources of biotin.


What are the available forms of biotin?

Biotin can be found in gels, tablets, capsules, and multivitamins.

How much biotin do you need?

There is no current RDA for biotin, but the adequate intake (AI) level for adults is 30 micrograms per day.

Pantothenic Acid/Vitamin B-5

What is pantothenic acid?

Pantothenic acid makes up part of a larger molecule that plays a huge role in energy metabolism.

What does pantothenic acid do?

Pantothenic acid plays a critical part in the body’s ability to convert nutrients into energy.

What happens when you don’t have enough pantothenic acid?

Symptoms of deficiency include fatigue, impaired coordination, nausea, and sleep disturbances. Pantothenic acid can be obtained from a balanced and varied diet, so deficiencies are rare. There is not sufficient evidence to suggest that pantothenic acid supplementation will improve performance.

Are there side effects of pantothenic acid?

There are no known side effects from supplementation or high doses of pantothenic acid, with no upper limit set.

What are the possible interactions?

There are no known interactions from supplementation.

Is pantothenic acid found in whole foods?

Pantothenic acid can be found in legumes, tomatoes, beef, poultry, and dairy products.


What are the available forms for this ingredient?

Pantothenic acid can be found in gels, tablets and capsules, or in a multivitamin.

How is this ingredient taken?

No RDA has been set for pantothenic acid, but the AI is 5 milligrams per day for adults.

The Bottom Line

Vitamin B complex contains eight vitamins, all of which play varying roles in a range of functions including energy metabolism, reproductive health, and red blood cell production. Research into B vitamins has shown that supplementation is unlikely to yield performance benefits, particularly in those without a deficiency. A well-balanced, varied diet full of good sources of protein, lots of green leafy vegetables, nuts, and legumes typically provides sufficient levels of the B vitamins.

Deficiencies in these vitamins can arise from either poor absorption or inadequate intake of certain foods or overall calories. People at increased risk for deficiencies in certain B vitamins include older adults, vegetarians and vegans, and people who are drastically cutting weight through excess exercise or by lowering their calories. The B vitamins play an important role in the body’s ability to produce energy, so it’s important to keep these levels high, whether through diet or supplementation.


  1. Haff, G. G. (2008). Essentials of Sports Nutrition Study Guide. Essentials of Sports Nutrition Study Guide: by Gregory G. Haff, ISBN 978-1-58829-611-5. Humana Press, 2008.
  2. Fink, H. H., & Mikesky, A. E. (2017). Practical Applications in Sports Nutrition. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
  3. van der Beek, E. J., Van Dokkum, W., Wedel, M., Schrijver, J., & van den Berg, H. (1994). Thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin B6: impact of restricted intake on physical performance in man. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 13(6), 629-640.
  4. Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. (1998). Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. National Academies Press (US).
  5. Winters, L. R., Yoon, J. S., Kalkwarf, H. J., Davies, J. C., Berkowitz, M. G., Haas, J., & Roe, D. A. (1992). Riboflavin requirements and exercise adaptation in older women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56(3), 526-532.
  6. Goldman, R. D., Rogovik, A. L., Lai, D., & Vohra, S. (2008). Potential interactions of drug–natural health products and natural health products–natural health products among children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 152(4), 521-526.
  7. Miodownik, C., Lerner, V., Vishne, T., Sela, B. A., & Levine, J. (2007). High-dose vitamin B6 decreases homocysteine serum levels in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders: a preliminary study. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 30(1), 13-17.

Vitamin B complex is a group of water-soluble vitamins that include…

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Katie Ledecky and Paralympian Brad Snyder Named To Sports Illustrated 50 Fittest Athletes List

Photo Courtesy: SIPA USA

Sports Illustrated recently compiled a list of the 50 most fit men and the 50 most fit women in the world of sports right now. Swimmers Katie Ledecky and Paralympian Brad Snyder both made the list as Ledecky was in the top five for the women’s list.

Ledecky was ranked third on the list behind only track star Allyson Felix and gymnast Simone Biles. The list was assessed on factors including speed, endurance, performances in the last 12 months and other factors. Ledecky has not lost a race over 400 meters at the international level yet in her career. The 20-year-old was dealt her first loss in a major meet this past summer when she was passed by Italian Federica Pellegrini in the 200 free at World Championships.

Ledecky will be a sophomore this year at Stanford where she will look to help the team win its second straight NCAA team title.

Snyder was ranked at 31 as the only paralympian on the men’s list. He is just behind current NBA player Hassan Whiteside and ahead of gymnast Sam Mikulak. Snyder holds the world record in the 100 free for fully blind swimmers. He is 33 years of age and has swum in two Olympics, garnering five gold medals and two silvers at the London and Rio Paralympics.

Snyder is a 2006 graduate of the Naval Academy where he was captain of the swim team. Snyder was also chosen as the flagbearer for the United States at the Closing Ceremony at the 2012 Paralympics.

To see Sport Illustrated’s full women’s list, click here.

To see Sport Illustrated’s full men’s list, click here.

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